Saturday, November 10, 2007

Architectures for Intelligence

Architectures for Intelligence is a compilation of articles from the Carnegie Mellon 22nd symposium on cognition. It is a veritable goldmine of ideas for cognitive engineers.

Touching on a number of systems that embody topics such as rational analysis, systems that target specific AI issues to an excellent discussion of goal reconstruction. The article on goal reconstruction compliments some of the central ideologies of the Noumena Cognitive Engine, by providing discussions on combining situated actions and planned actions. There is now a definitive module inside Noumena that specifically deals/attempts to recognize and reconstruct goals that may have been interrupted or even disassociated.

The overall structure of the book is excellent because either intentionally or inadvertently a lot of the papers feed off of each other.

Other gems include a paper on self-improving systems and my favorite, "The Place of Cognitive Architectures in Rational Analysis", by John Anderson. That article has true gems (both by Anderson and referenced works) - worth the price of admission.

The Research Continues....

So the work continues, ever so methodically and ever continuous. Real life has provided it's fair of distractions but everything moves forward. I've written the basic framework (more like the scaffolding) of the engine in which GLR resides and I'm now coding up the cognitive frames. So, I'm still on track for demonstrating an early version of the GLR engine and the game that uses it next year.

Some of the books that I've been (as of late) working through include:

Artificial Consciousness, Chella
Consciousness: Natural and Artificial, Culbertson
Commonsense Reasoning, Mueller
Cognitive Carpentry, Pollock
How to Build a Person, Pollock
The Connection Machine, Hillis
Causality, Pearl
A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness, Barr
In the Theatre of Consciousness, Barr
The Philosophy of Artifical Life, Boden
Introduction to Artifical Life, Adami
Cybernetic Machines, Nemes
Cognitive Engineering
The Web of Life, Capra
Nomic Probability, Pollock
How Can the Mind Occur in the Physical Universe, Anderson
Rules of the Mind, Anderson
Atomic Components of Thought, Anderson
Exploring Complexity, Nicolis

Some more so than others, for example the Anderson books are great - not only because they've to some degree been implemented but because they provide the broadest spectrum of understanding - from a theoretical exposition to an implementation.

Tuesday, October 02, 2007

The NoumenaMind Cognitive Engine : Theoretical Entities.

NoumenaCE: Introspection, Speculation and What-If Events Through Theoretical Entities

One of the issues that I've been working through as of late has been, how do I internally model hypothetical entities, situations, events, relationships in regards to a designated spatio-temporal assignment?

What this really amounts to is that I want the NoumenaCognitive Engine to think and reason without initiating an action. This is normally not seen in games - but I'm not trying to implement the status-quo here!

What does Noumena need to do?

Noumena needs to contemplate certain actions via it's own internal belief system. What this contemplation allows for is the ability for Noumena to form it's own internal belief structure (which in turn obviously influences it's eventual actions - potentially heavily) which are based upon it's internal model of the world. This world is built from not only Noumena's raw sensory input, but also the impact that the Noumena-CE perceives it's impact has on/in the environment.

The Noumena system is predicated on the concept of an entity. An entity is basically an atomic element in the world. There are properties associated with an entity, such as red, or dead - the properties themselves, depending on it's complexity may also be entities. It just really depends on the properties complexity.

Entities can be associated through different types of links such as a temporal link for an association that occurs in concert between two entities OR a temporal link signifying that two or more entities have never occurred together.

After some digging, I've settled on the concept of a "Theoretical Entity." The first time I actually read about "theoretical" aspects of cognition was in John Pollock's books, How to Build a Person and Cognitive Carpentry. Both are excellent philosophical books with a dose of AI. I'm sure theoretical entities are addressed in a lot of philosophical books.

A theoretical entity is created when the engine wants to internally structure something that is not necessarily grounded. This allows for the NoumenaCE to create a RED-TANK-THAT FLIES, when all it really knows about is that a tank is a grounded entity, that moves around the terrain and munches soldiers. What's great about theoretical entities is that Noumena can build these internally and if they are ever encountered in the world - either through direct contact or inferred, it can perform a structural promotion from the theoretical entity to a grounded entity. The promotional stage not only deals with the theoretical entity but also any potential associations that the entity has through links to other theoretical entities. These associated entities (either theoretical or grounded) may or may not be promoted along, but their links are maintained and as such may either be degraded or reinforced as applicable over time. Which may lead to the eventual promotion or demotion of an associated entity or property.

Saturday, September 08, 2007

A Multi-Platform Threading Engine

I've posted version 0.1 of the GLRThreading Engine. It is currently only suited for Windows and Xbox development or more precisely: any Windows based systems, but once I get to the final 1.0 release you'll have a threading engine, along with a generalized sync mechanism and a dependency graph to manage - well object dependencies!

If you have any feedback on the system please email it to me and if you want read about it in-depth, then buy a copy of Game Programming Gems Volume 7. I have an article detailing it's general architecture as well a bunch of general threading techniques.

The GLRThreading Engine will be used inside the GLR Cognitive Engine, as many of the internal systems require the ability to execute in parallel ( group promotion management, link management, memory migration, etc..).


Wednesday, September 05, 2007

Currently Reading: Pitfalls of OO Development

I recently picked up a copy of an older book entitled, "Pitfalls of OO Development by Bruce Webster. It covers a lot of down in the trenches type issues such as object oozing (you gotta love that name), conceptual pitfalls, political pitfalls, analysis and design, proper base class creation as well as more higher level architectural issues - everything such as supposedly basic documentation issues, tools and reuse issues.

Is there any one particular part that stands out? Not really, it just coalesces as a nice book on object oriented development.

The managerial side of me really likes part 3, which covers mid project corrections. Some really basic, but nonetheless, down to earth advice.

Since the book came out awhile ago, you can pick it up on the cheap and is highly recommended.


Wednesday, August 29, 2007

The Foundational Efforts of the NoumenaMind Engine

As with any endeavor that requires a bit of mental fortitude we need to not only have our own inspirations and intellectual glimpses into something special but also the ability to understand other scientists work. To help me accomplish this I have over the last 2 years purchased a large number of books - not only because I was fundamentally unfamiliar with a lot of the issues but there are definitely pieces of work that influenced the direction of the NoumenaMind Cognitive Engine.


The bibliography is one of the most important chapters of any book, to me. Here you will find books that not only shaped and guided my work, but also served as direct (as noted in the book) and indirect inspiration. If you read the “Shaping of GLR” inconjunction with having this chapter open – you can gain great insight into the thought processes and the gedanken experiments that went into the underlying cognitive mechanisms. These books are part of my personal library.


Advances in AGI, Goertzel


Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development, Wadsworth

Rigid Flexbility, Wang

Piagets Theory of Intellectual Development, Ginsburg

The Mathematics of Games of Strategy, Dresher

The Compleat Strategyst, Williams

Leviathan, Hobbes

Artificial Minds, Franklin

What is Thought, Baum

Lifes Solution, Morris

Synaptic Self, Ledoux

Semantic Cognition, Rogers

Dreams of Reason, Pagels

The Theory of Evolution, Maynard Smith

Evolutionary Computation 3rd, Fogel

Computational Intelligence, Fogel

Applied Evolutionary Algorithms, Hercock

Introduction to Aritificla Intelligence, Jackson

Principles of Aritifical Intelligence, Nilsson

Simple Minds, Lloyd

The Causes of Evolution, Haldane

Mind Design II, Haugeland

Neural Darwinism, Edelman

A Universe of Consciousness, Edelman

The Remembered Present, Edelman,

Darwin, Eldridge

Society of Mind, Minsky

Emotional Machine, Minsky

Mapping the Mind, Carter

The Hidden Pattern, Goertzel

Growing Artificial Societies, Epstein

The Emotional Brain, Ledoux

Evolutionary Computation: The Fossil Record, Fogel

DNA, Watson

On Evolution, Glick

Wider Then the Sky, Edelman

Second Nature, Edelman

Bright Air, Brilliant Fire, Edelman

Mathematica, Wolfram

Adaptation and Natural Selection, Williams

The Engine of Reason and the Seat of the Soul, Churchland

Evolutionary Dynamics, Nowak

How we Think, Dewey

The Concept of the Mind, Ryle

Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, Rand

BrainChildren, Dennet

The Mystery of Consciousness, Searle

Cellular Automata, Gutowitz

Cellular Automata, Toffoli

Computer Virus, Artificial Life and Evolution, Ludwig

Induction, Holland

Artifical Life, Levy

New Constructions in Cellular Automata, Griffearth

The Minds I, Hofstadler

Complexity, Lewin

The Fractal Geometry of Nature, Mandelbrot

How the Mind Works, Pinker

At Home in the Universe, Kauffman

Investigations, Kauffman

Chaos, Gleick

Creation, Grand

Complexity, Waldrop

The Analogical Mind, Gentner

An Introduction to Generic Algorithms, Mitchell

The Way We Think, Fauconnier

Mappings in Thought and Languages, Fauconnier

Mental Spaces, Fauconnier

Self Organization in Biological Systems, Carmazine

Growing up with Lucy, Grand

Hidden Order, Holland

Self-Organized Criticality, Jensen

The Blue and Brown Book, Wittgenstein

The Origins of Order, Kauffman

Adapation in Natural and Artifical Systems, Holland

The Mechanical Mind, Crane

Evolutionary Computing, Fogel

On Intelligence, Hawkins

Artificial Intelligence, Norvig

Cellular Automata and Complexity, Wolfram

Games of Life, Sigmund

The Garden in the Machine, Emmeche

Signs of Life, Sole

Blondie24, Fogel

Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein

Conceptual Spaces,Gardenfors

Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Wittgenstein

The Recursive Universe, Poundstone

Neurophilosophy, Churchland

The Armchair Universe, Dewdney

Chaos Theory Tamed, Williams

Gregor Mendel, Mawer

In Search of Memory, Kandel

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke

The Emperor'sNew Mind, Penrose

The Road to Reality, Penrose

Shadows of the Mind, Penrose

Metamagical Themas, Hofstadter

Godel, Escher, Bach , Hofstadter

Fluid Concepts, Hofstadter

The TinkerToy Computer, Dewdney

A New Kinds of Science,Wolfram

Analogy Making as Perception, Mitchell

Genesis Redux, Rietman

Creating Artifical Life, Rietman

Exploring the Geometry of Nature, Rietman

Topobiology, Edelman

Mind Tools, Rucker

Introduction To Logic, Kant

Critique of Practical Reason, Kant

Critique of Pure Reason, Kant

Critique of Judgement, Kant

Metaphysic of Morals, Kant

Ancestors Tale, Dawkins

The Blind Watchmaker, Dawkins

The Selfish Gene, Dawkins

Darwin's Dangerous Idea, Dennett

Recollections of My Life, Cajal

Perfect Symmetry, Pagel

The Fabric of the Cosmos, Greene

Elegant Universe, Greene

The Cosmic Code, Pagel

Key Philosophical Writings,Descartes

Minds, Brains and Science, Searle

Advice for a Young Investigator, Cajal

The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, Darwin

The Lifebox, the SeaShell and the Soul, Rucker

Nerve Endings, Rapport

Sparse Distributed Memory, Kanerva

Computers and Thought, Feigenbaum

Pattern Classification 2nd ed, Duda

Treatise of Human Nature, Hume

I am a Strange Loop, Hofstadter

Perceptrons, Minsky

The Intentional Stance, Dennett

Brainstorms, Dennett

Freedom Evolves, Dennett

Consciousness Explained, Dennett

Daniel Dennett Essays, Brook

Elbow Room, Dennett

Modularity of Mind, Fodor

Unified Theories of Cognition, Newell

The Genius Engine, Stein

The Evolving Brain, Steen

The Architecture of Cognition, Anderson

NeuroComputing 1, Anderson, et al

NeuroComputing 2, Anderson, et. al

The Design of Brain, Ashby

Introduction to Cybernetics, Ashby

Living Control Systems 1, Powers

Living Control Systems 2, Powers

Behavior: The Control of Perception, Powers

Artificial General Intelligence, Goertzel

The Evolution of Cooperation, Axelrod

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, Gould

The Essential Gould, Gould

Physiological Psychology, Milner

The Neurological Basis of Motivation, Milner

Cognitive Processes and the Brain: An Enduring Problem in Psychology, Milner

Metaphors We Live By, Lakoff

Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things, Lakoff

The Autonomous Brain: A Neural Theory of Attention and Learning, Milner

The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory, Hebb

Psychology: The Briefer Course, James

The Fourth Dimension, Hilton

Essay on Mind, Hebb

Programming the Universe, Lloyd

The Intelligent Universe, Gardner

A User's Guide to the Brain, Ratey

An Alchemy of Mind, Ackerman

Beyond AI, Hall

The Artilect War, DeGaris

Parallel Distributed Processing, Volume 1, McClelland
Parallel Distributed Processing, Volume 2 , Rumelhart

Monday, August 27, 2007